«GIGA», un projet grand public sur les impacts à l’échelle de la planète-« GIGA » a worldwide project for education and training of the general public on asteroid impacts

GLOBAL IMPACT HERITAGE ASSOCIATION: A PROJECT SERVING THE PUBLIC AND IMPACT RESEARCH. P. Lambert1 . 1CIRIR – Center for International Research and Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart, F-87600 Rochechouart, France, lambertbdx@gmail.com,

Introduction: The why, who and how associating the globally existing structures to promote impact geoheritage amongst the public are discussed in preamble to the project “Global Impact Heritage Association” (name subject to change), intended for the benefit of the public worldwide, with positive impact on ground based planetary research.

Why: Impact cratering is a still relatively young and newly recognized geo-process (~60 years), and its nature, effects, and role are not well known by the public at large. Yet impact cratering is now widely acknowledged by the scientific community as a fundamental planetary process that occurred, and still occurs, throughout the solar system. Meteorites as the remnants of planetary bodies are abundantly affected by impact processes, and the large planetary objects of the solar system were essentially formed as the result of impacts. Eventually, impact craters are the most observed geo-form on the surface of most planetary objects (including the Moon, Mercury, much of Mars, and many other rocky and frozen bodies). Over the last decades it has also become apparent that impact events have profoundly affected the origin and evolution of Earth. The European Space Agency identifies asteroid impact as a major threat to Earth and focuses its 2019 strategy for renewed funding on this threat. The cataclysmic role of meteorite impact on evolution of life is also widely  recognized by the public. What has remained obscure, however, is the potentially fundamental “positive” role impact could have played regarding the development and evolution of life, both as a possible “carrier” of micro-organisms to seed Earth, and as a provider of environmental conditions favorable for the seeding with and/or the development of life on otherwise hostile planetary surfaces (including the early Earth). Recent space missions revealed that complex organic chemistry is active on a variety of planetary objects (including satellite Titan or comet Churyumov–Gerasimenko). Organic chemistry has become an active field of meteorite studies. It has been recently established that large impacts are capable of triggering hydrothermal activity on planetary surfaces without free water, a mechanism that may have resulted in transient giant lakes in large impact craters on Mars [1]. And finally, impacts can also produce economic ore deposits. Approximately one third of the meteorite impact structures confirmed on Earth hve major or significant economic resources. On the Moon, the impact mechanism is responsible for all materials exposed on its surface, and plans for mining the Moon’s resources necessarily need to consider the impact cratering process. While essentially incomplete due to erosion, sedimentation, and plate tectonics, the terrestrial impact cratering record is and will remain for many decades the best opportunity offered to mankind in the whole Solar System to conduct field work and laboratory studies towards improved understanding of the impact cratering process. In this context the need for elevating the level of awareness of impact cratering, and interest by the public on this topic is obvious. The scientific community and the funding available for research in this field are still rather small and both needs to be developed. This situation can be improved through sensibilization of the general public and other stakeholders.

This is precisely the core objective of the already existing outreach initiatives and structures dedicated to meteorite impact cratering. Our proposal is, thus, to gather the global forces toward that aim, bringing the existing and future structures together into a “win-win” partnership (see “How”).

Who: This association would primarily focus on structures (private and public) directly in contact with the public, i.e. museums, natural reserves and parks, and geoparks. With nearly 300,000 visitors/year, Meteor Crater Museum, a private structure, is way ahead of all others in terms of visitors’ numbers. The accessibility, the quality of the Museum and the perfectly-sized and preserved crater combine to make this site such a success. Next in line are the Ries crater museum and the Ries geopark in Germany, where the total number of visitors to both these institutions is more difficult to figure out but is estimated at some 50,000/year. The Ries Crater Museum in Nördlingen is ran by the state of Bavaria and the municipality. The Ries Geopark is a national institution that is run by the local district council. The next structures are about ten times smaller, with the Steinheim Meteor Crater Museum (Germany) that opened in 1978, run by the local communities, and the Paul Pellas Museum in Rochechouart dedicated to the Rochechouart impact structure. This facility is part of the “Réserve Naturelle Nationale de l’Astroblème de Rochechouart-Chassenon” primarly intended to protect the impact geoheritage. CIRIR, the publically funded international association for developing both the research and the restitution to the public is currently settling on site. CIRIR involves more than 70 specialists of geoheritage and impact research, and aims to bring the Rochechouart impact structure onto the World Heritage list. CIRIR and CIRIR-UNESCO project will boost the interest of the public and the stakeholders in the Rochechouart impact and in terrestrial impact structures, in general. A number of smaller visitor centers exist at a variety of impact sites such as, in no particular order, Odessa (Texas-USA), Charlevoix (Quebec-Canada), Campo del Cielo (Argentina), Gardnos (Norway), Lockne (Sweden), and Söderfjärden (Finland). Other plans for visitors centers exist at Vredefort and Tswaing in South Africa, with Vredefort being a designated but not effected World Heritage site, also at Siljan (Sweden), Chicxulub (Mexico), Wetumpka, and Flynn Creek (USA), Dellen and several other sites in Sweden, Karikkoselkä, Keurusselkä, Lappajärvi, Saarijärvi, and Summanen in Finland, Morasko in Poland, Bosumtwi (Ghana), and possibly others.

How: To be efficient the proposed association of outreach establishments must benefit all members, must be cost-efficient and without intellectual constraints. Ideally, the following rules should apply: no entry fees, all members would be equal and free to contribute on a voluntary basis, and for a win-win scenario. The geographical spread of the concerned structures is such that each could easily promote others without risking local or regional competition. The international dimension of the group and the respective visibilities of the members would then benefit others. Further benefits would come from exchanges (e.g., relevant information, news, return of experience…) in the group. Beyond “networking”, the sites could exchange “materials”. For instance, each associate could provide the others with “matter to show” related to their own site and or initiatives. The members could also combine assets, and possibly join for common initiatives (e.g., joint exhibition/event, specific development such as documentaries, software, and more…). For the developer, this would mean increased visibility, thus promotion of its site and initiatives. For the associate, it would provide collaborative input possibilities, use of materials from others, and the possibility to bring their aspects into the other development. Collaboration – but without obligation. Each member would decide and would be responsible for what he wants to provide to the others. In that context, some members could decide to join forces, or the whole group could join forces for specific projects, such as “a world tour of terrestrial impact craters”. With or without the contribution of the scientific community, the group could also collectively look for international support for some specific projects for education, cultural heritage and geo-tourism related to impact craters on Earth, eventually addressing broader issues and topics, such as preservation of our planet, or the policies to set at the world level in the context of the fast growing future for exploring and exploiting extraterrestrial natural resources (starting with the Moon).

Conclusion: The proposed world association of outreach structures (private and public) dedicated to terrestrial impact craters would benefit all. It would benefit the members by increasing their attractivity/visibility and increase their cost efficiency via mutualization of means and experiences. It would benefit the populations on site through geo-tourism and the public at large by increasing knowledge and quality of tuition about geological and biological processes. The association would serve science, by attracting the youth and motivating decision makers for reinforcing research in this field. In this context, the combined efforts can be seen and advertised as a service to humankind. Preliminary contacts have been made with the managers of the largest structures listed above and communication is in progress. Results will be reported at the conference. 

Acknowledgments: I am grateful to the host of friends and colleagues for support, constructive exchange and information, including Uwe Reimold, Drew Barringer, Jennie Wadsworth, Jens Ormo, Gisela Prosges, Elmar Bruckner, Susanne Schwenzer, Martin Schmieder, Paula Lindgren, David Kring, Carleton Moore, Bjorn Forsberg, Stefan Hölzl, Linda Wickstrom, Pierre Poupart and others who will hopefully forgive me for not being listed here.

References: [1] Abramov O. and Kring D. A. (2005) Journal of Geophysical Research 110, E12809, 19 p., doi: 10.1029/2005JE002453 [2] Lambert P. (2019), this conference

Large Meteorite Impacts VI 2019 (LPI Contrib. No. 2136)

Le CIRIR et Rochechouart à la 6ème édition de la “Large Meteorite Impact Conference” à Brasilia-Brésil, 30-09/3-10/2019-Rochechouart at the 6th “Large Meteorite Impact Conference” September 30-October 3, 2019, Brasilia, Brazil

Organisée tous 4 à 6 ans, cette conférence est en quelque sorte les « Jeux Olympiques » des « champions » de l’étude des cratères d’impact météoritique que compte la planète, et plus précisément des spécialistes de l’étude des cratères d’impact sur Terre. C’est à l’occasion de 4ème édition de cette manifestation, en 2008 en Afrique du Sud, que P. Lambert annonçait le projet de valorisation du Géopatrimoine « Impact de Rochechouart » comme « Laboratoire Naturel » à disposition de la communauté internationale pour la connaissance du phénomène dans le Système Solaire et au-delà. Ce projet s’est réalisé depuis. Le CIRIR créé en 2016 en est l’instrument. Les forages réalisés en 2017-2018 dans les sites de la Réserve Naturelle Nationale de l’Astroblème de Rochechouart Chassenon en sont une des réalisations concrètes, de mêmes que travaux présentés à l’occasion de cette manifestation, dont la liste est donnée ci-dessous :

Organized every 4-6 years, this conference is sort of “Olympics” of the “champions” of the studies of meteorite impact craters worldwide. It was at the 4th edition of theis conference that P. Lambert announced the project of making the Rochechouart Impact Geoheritage a Natural Laboratory made available to the community worldwide for understanding impact cratering in the Solar System and beyond. The CIRIR created in 2016, is the practical instrument toward that aim. The 2017-2018 drillings in the National Reserve are one of the practical results as are the presentations by CIRIR members at this conference, as listed below :

AN ERODED PEAK RING IMPACT RECORDING A TSUNAMI ON EARTH: ROCHECHOUART. P. Lambert1 . 1CIRIR-Center for International Research and Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart-87600 Rochechouart-France, lambertbdx@gmail.com,

CURRENT STAGE OF THE CIRIR RESEARCH AND OUTREACH AT ROCHECHOUART. P. Lambert1 . 1CIRIR-Center for International Research and Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart-87600 Rochechouart-France, lambertbdx@gmail.com,

MULTISCALE GEOELECTRICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ROCHECHOUART/CHASSENON IMPACT BRECCIA. Y. Quesnel1 , P. Sailhac2 , J. Lofi3 , P. Pezard3 , P. Lambert4 , P. Rochette1 , M. Uehara1 , 1Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence, France (quesnel@cerege.fr), 2GEOPS, Univ Paris-Sud, France, 3Geosciences Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier, France, 4CIRIR, Rochechouart, France.

CORE AND DOWNHOLE PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ROCHECHOUART IMPACT ROCKS. P. Rochette1 , F. Demory1 , O. Cherait1 , L. Hervieu1 , B. Celerier2 , J. Lofi2 , P.A. Pezard2 , P. Lambert3 , Y. Quesnel1 , 1 Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence, France (quesnel@cerege.fr), 2 Geosciences Montpellier, France, 3 CIRIR, Rochechouart, France.

MAPPING THE K, Th, U DISTRIBUTION AT THE ROCHECHOUART IMPACT STRUCTURE: INSIGHT INTO IMPACT-RELATED AND POST-IMPACT PROCESSES. D. Baratoux1 , C.A.B. Niang1,2,3, J. Lofi4 , P. Rochette5 , W.U. Reimold6 , P. Lambert7 , 1 Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, University of Toulouse, CNRS & IRD, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400, Toulouse, France. 2 Département de Géologie, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal, cabniangeos@gmail.com, 3 Institut Fondamental d’Afrique Noire Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal. 4 Geosciences Montpellier, Université de Montpellier Campus Triolet cc060Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 Montpellier, France. 5 Centre Européen de Recherche et d’Enseignement des Géosciences et de l’Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, CEREGE UM34, Aix en Provence, France. 6 Institute of Geosciences, Laboratory of Geodynamics, Geochronology and Environmental Science, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.7 Center for International Research & Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart, 87600 Rochechouart, France.

GLOBAL IMPACT HERITAGE ASSOCIATION: A PROJECT SERVING THE PUBLIC AND IMPACT RESEARCH. P. Lambert1 . 1CIRIR – Center for International Research and Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart, F-87600 Rochechouart, France, lambertbdx@gmail.com,

Le CIRIR et Rochechouart au “European Planetary Science Congres-DPS Joint Meeting 2019” à Genève, Suisse, 15-20/09/2019-Rochechouart at the “EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019” in Geneva, Switzerland, 15–20 September 2019

Organisé tous les ans, par Europlanet Society, conjointement avec la DPS (Division for Planetary Sciences de l’American Astronomical Society) tous les deux ans, ce congrès à rassemble à Genève 1730 participants de 52 nations. C’était l’occasion pour P. Lambert, les membres du CIRIR et Jean-Pierre Lebreton, président de ce Congrès, de présenter un projet ambitieux pour la valorisation du geopatrimoine Impact de Rochechouart auprès du grand public à l’échelle de la planète, en faire un lieu d’éducation et d’entrainement, à commencer pour les astronautes.
Organized each year by the Europlanet Society, jointly with DPS (Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society) every 2 years, the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 was attended by 1730 participants from 52 countries. It was the ooportunity for P. Lambert, with the CIRIR consortium and Jean-Pierre Lebreton, president of this Congres, to present an ambitious project toward the empowerment of the Rochechouart impact geoheritage into the public by using the CIRIR facilities and means toward making the site a training and education site, stating with astronauts:

THE ROCHECHOUART IMPACT GEOSITE FOR RESEARCH, EDUCATION AND TRAINING Philippe Lambert (1), Jean-Pierre Lebreton (2, 3), and CIRIR consortium (1), (1) Center for International Research and Restitution on Impact and on Rochechouart, 87600 Rochechouart, France; (2) LPC2E, CNRS-Université Orleans-CNES, 45000 Orleans, France; (3) LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, CNRS, 92195, Meudon, France,

In the prospect of future economic exploitation of the
Moon and asteroids which are made and permanently
reprocessed by impact, we address the potential for
utilizing Rochechouart impact as test site for studies,
and the field facilities and resources available on site
and for practical “immersive” training of astronauts,
administrations and industries on impact materials
and processes.
10.1029/2005JE002453, 2005

Le CIRIR et Rochechouart à la 82ème édition de l’“Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society” à Sapporo-Japon, 7-12/7/2019-Rochechouart at the 82th “Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society”, July 7-12, 2019, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Organisée tous les ans, cette conférence est avec la « Lunar & Planetary Science Conference », le rendez-vous annuel des spécialistes des cratères d’impacts de météorite depuis les années 60. C’est pour les chercheurs, l’occasion de présenter leurs derniers résultats. Deux communications par le CIRIR portant sur Rochechouart y étaient présentées.

Organized each year, this conference together with the « Lunar & Planetary Science Conference » is the annual “Rendez-Vous”of the specialist of impact cratering and terrestrial impact crater since le 60’s. It is the opportunity to present their latest results to the community. This year, 2 presentations on Rocchechouart by CIRIR members were presented :

“MISSION TO ROCHECHOUART” PROJECT: A REVIEW. P. Lambert1 and CIRIR Consortium2- 1CIRIR-Center for International Research and Restitution on Impacts and on Rochechouart-87600 Rochechouart-France, lambertbdx@gmail.com,

A SURVEY OF ZIRCON MICROTEXTURES IN THE ROCHECHOUART IMPACTITES A. Plan1 , P. Lindgren1, P. Lambert2.1Lunds University, Department of Geology, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62, Lund, Sweden, email: anders.plan@geol.lu.se 2CIRIR – Center for international Research and Restitution on Impacts and onRochechouart, 87600 Rochechouart, France, email: lambertbdx@gmail.com

14/08/2019-50ème anniversaire de la découverte des premiers shatter cones (cônes de percussion) sur la commune de Pressignac (Charente) et hommage à François Kraut découvreur de « l’impact de Rochechouart » / 2019/08/14-50th anniversary of the discovery of the first shatter cones near Pressignac (Charente) and tribute to François Kraut, discoverer of the “Rochechouart impact”

Il y a 50 ans, le 14 août 1969, François Kraut, géologue minéralogiste au Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, accompagné de Bevan French de la NASA et son épouse, Mary Hill French, découvraient les premiers shatter-cones (cônes de percussion) dans la région de Rochechouart-Chassenon, à la faveur de leur rencontre avec Madame Solange Boulesteix, qui résidait, et réside toujours dans le village de Fontceverane. Cette découverte a permis à François Kraut de confirmer la région de Rochechouart-Chassenon comme le site d’un impact d’un astéroïde dans une communication à l’Académie des Sciences de Paris et Octobre 1969. Le site est alors reconnu par la communauté internationale et rejoint la liste officielle des cratères d’impacts authentifiés sur Terre, sous la dénomination « Impact de Rochechouart ». Jusqu’à son décès en 1983, François Kraut est resté en contact avec Madame Boulesteix et sa famille.


Fifty years ago, on August 14, 1969, François Kraut, a mineralogist and geologist at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, accompanied by NASA’s Bevan French and his wife, Mary Hill French, discovered the first shatter-cones in the region of Rochechouart-Chassenon, thanks to their meeting with Mrs. Solange Boulesteix, who resided, and still resides in the village of Fontceverane. This discovery allowed François Kraut to confirm the region of Rochechouart-Chassenon as the site of an impact of an asteroid in a communication he gave at the French Academy of Sciences on October 1969. The site was then recognized by the international community and joined the official list of authenticated impact craters on Earth, under the name ” Rochechouart impact”. Until his death in 1983, François Kraut stayed in touch with Madame Boulesteix and her family.


Poster posté à la Maison de la Réserve réalisé par P. Chèvremont avec le concours du personnel de la Réserve
Posterby P. Chevremont, posted at the House of the National Natural Reserve

Rochechouart à la 50ème édition de la Lunar and Planetary Science Conference/ Rochechouart at the 50th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference March 18–22, 2019 The Woodlands, Texas

Organisée tous les ans depuis 50 ans par l’Association « USRA » (Universities Space Research Association), la Lunar and Planetary Science Conference rassemble en moyenne tous les ans 1500 à 2000 spécialistes du monde entier venus présenter à Houston les derniers résultats de leurs recherches dans le domaine de la Planétologie. La première, connue sous le nom « Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference », s’est tenue à Houston du 5 au 8 janvier 1970. Elle sera célébrée cette année à l’occasion de son 50ème anniversaire durant la conférence. Jusqu’en 1978, ces conférences ont été dévolues exclusivement aux résultats des travaux sur les échantillons rapportés de la Lune. A partir de 1978, le champ s’est élargi à toute la planétologie. Les deux premières présentations sur Rochechouart à la Lunar and Planetary Science Conference remontent à la 11ème édition, en 1980, et portent sur l’identification de l’astéroïde de Rochechouart. Au total 17 présentations dont deux en 2019 portent sur Rochechouart à l’occasion de ces conférences.

Organized each year by the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) since 50 years, the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference gathers international specialists coming to Houston for presenting the latest results of their research in planetary science. The first one, known as the known as the Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference, was held in Houston from January 5–8, 1970. It will be honored this year. Until 1978, presentations at the conference focused on the study of the samples returned from the moon. In 1978 and after, the scope enlarged to the whole Planetology field. The first two presentations on Rochechouart at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference were given in 1980, dealing with the identification of the projectile. All together 17 presentations including 2 in 2019 deal with Rochechouart impact in this series of Conference.

The two presentations will take place Tuesday, March 19, 2019 in the




1:30 p.m.   Montgomery Ballroom

Chairs:  Sean Gulick and Anna Losiak

Times Authors Abstract Title and Summary  
1:30 p.m. Gulick S. P. S. *   Christeson G. L.   Morgan J. Heterogeneity of Large Impact Structures as Illuminated by Chicxulub:  A Terrestrial Analog While Placing IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in Context [#1654]
We discuss heterogeneities of the Chicxulub structure deposits and melt rocks placing IODP site M0077. Controls on such heterogeneities yield insights.
1:45 p.m. Huber M. S. *   Kovaleva E. Was the Vredefort Melt Sheet Similar Composition to the Sudbury Melt Sheet? [#2396]
Big impacts make melt sheets / Does massive crustal melting generate similar compositions? / Modeling tells us it can.
2:00 p.m. Hill P. J. A. *   Osinski G. R.   Banerjee N. R. Through the Impact Glass:  Understanding the Origin and Evolution of Impact Melt from the Mistastin Lake Impact Structure [#1664]
Through the impact glass / Mistastin Lake’s origin / A story revealed.
2:15 p.m. Jaret S. J. *   King D. T. Jr   Tailby N. D.   Adams M. C.   Ebel D. S. Impact Melt Clasts from the Flynn Creek Impact Structure, Tennessee — Temperature Constraints from Titanium-in-Quartz Thermometry [#3170]
High titanium / In quartz tells that it formed at / High temperature.
2:30 p.m. Pickersgill A. E. *   Mark D. F.   Lee M. R.   Osinski G. R. A Refined Age for the Gow Lake Impact Structure [#2375]
Gow Lake age (million) / One hundred ninety-seven / Argh! Extra argon.
2:45 p.m. McGregor M. *   McFarlane C. R. M.   Spray J. G. Multiphase U-Pb Geochronology and Shock Analysis of Apatite, Titanite, and Zircon from the La Moinerie Impact Structure, Canada [#2428]
First higher precision age constraints on the La Moinerie impact crater, Canada using multiphase U-Pb geochronology on apatite, titanite, and zircon.
3:00 p.m. Lambert P. *   Alwmark C.   Baratoux D.   Bouley S.   Brack A.   et al. The Rochechouart 2017-Cores Rescaled:  Major Features [#2005]
Presenting and discussing the rescaled and correlated core/borehole wall observations for the cumulated 544 m cores recovered in the Rochechouart impact structure.
3:15 p.m. Ormö J. *   Sturkell E.   Lambert P. Sedimentological Evidence for a Forceful Resurge at the Rochechouart Impact Crater, France:  Implications for Target Environment [#1785]
The SC2 core suevite deposits suggest a shallow marine target environment. It is important for cratering mechanics and paleoenvironmental reconstruction.
3:30 p.m. El Kerni H. *   Chennaoui Aoudjehane H.   Baratoux D.   Kenkmann T.   Wulf G.   et al. The Size and the Center of the Agoudal Impact Structure (Central High Atlas, Morocco) [#1331]
In order to constrain the center and the size of Agoudal Crater, the natural neighbor interpolation technique and the Concentrc Deviation Method were used.
3:45 p.m. Losiak A. *   Belcher C.   Jõeleht A.   Plado J.   Szyszko M. Death from Space:  Origin of Charcoal Found in Proximal Ejecta Blanket of Kaali Craters (Is NOT What We Think) [#2406]
Pieces of charcoal found in the proximal ejecta blanket of Kaali craters were most probably not formed by the radiative heat of the bolide.
4:00 p.m. Simpson S. L. *   Osinski G. R.   Longstaffe F. J. Hydrothermal Clay Mineral Production in Meteorite Impacts:  Lessons from δ2H and δ18O of Smectites from the Chicxulub Peak-Ring [#1663]
Crater clays preserve / Isotopic memoirs of / Hot, strange histories.
4:15 p.m. Hildebrand A. R. * The Highly Oblique Source Impact of the Australasian Tektite Strewn Field in Champasak Province, Laos [#3116]
The Australasian tektite strewn field source impact is located in Champasak, Laos; this highly oblique impact produced a doublet of two elliptical craters.
4:30 p.m. Schultz P. H. *   Harris R. S.   Peroud S.   Blanco N.   Tomlinson A. J.   et al. Late Pleistocene Fireballs Over the Atacama Desert, Chile [#2893]
A series of intense fireballs during the Late Pleistocene generated widespread glasses through radiative and convective heating.